Introduction to power generation
Power generation has become the heart of all those that gave us convenience in our daily living. On the other hand, it also ignited the dramatic increase in the human’s need for energy which started way back during the so-called industrial revolution. Generation is a large amount of electricity production process for general use. Typically, the energy produced at 10-20kV voltage to reduce the cost of insulation while generating electricity is an instrument used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The fundamentals of energy conversion are energy that cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.
Take for example:
- Light energy – Heat energy
- Potential energy – Mechanical energy
- Mechanical energy – Electrical energy
The electric current generated at the power station is the alternating current when a wire or an electrical energy conductive material cuts off a magnetic power line, the electrical current will produce. This principle is used in the operation of electric power sponsorship at power station. Electric current generated in this way is called induction currents
Methods of distribution
Where Do Our Electrical Energy and Power Are Coming From?
An electric power distribution system is the final stage in the delivery of electric power. It carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. The distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2kV and 35kV with the use of transformers.
Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage to distribution transformers located near the customer’s premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage of household appliances and typically feed several customers through secondary distribution lines at this voltage. For the commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or the sub-transmission level. A ground connection to local earth is normally provided for the customer’s system as well as for the equipment owned by the utility.
Principles of Electricity
Electrons – negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of the atom.
Protons – Positively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of the atom.
Neutrons – No charge in the atom.
- These parts are important to know because they determine the charge of the atom.
- The charge of the atom creates the energy used as electricity.
Consists of 4 Parts
- Produces the force that causes electrons to move.
- Think of a water source that pushes water through a pipe. Same principle.
- Electrons (-) are attracted by positive charges, and repelled by negative charges. (Opposite charges attract each other.)
- Provide an easy path for electrons to move throughout the circuit.
- Copper is the most commonly used conductor in electronics and residential wiring.
- Other conductors include other metals, and water.
- Part of the circuit that changes the energy of the moving electrons into another form of useful energy.
- Think of a light bulb as a load.
- As electrons move though the filament of the lamp, the energy of electrons in motion is changed into heat and light energy.
- Control Device
- Opens or closes the circuit for electrons to flow.
- A light switch is a great example. The lights are off, electrons can’t flow through to complete the circuit because the switch is open. When the switch is closed, the electrons can flow, and the circuit is closed.
- Switches can be classified as NO (normally open) or NC (Normally closed)
- The force that moves electrons is call VOLTAGE.
- The unit to measure voltage is known as volts.
- The common voltage a residential circuit is 120 volts.
- When calculating formulas, voltage is labelled as “V”.
- Current – Movement of electrons.
- Current is measured in Amperes or amps.
- A typical residential circuit measures 15 Amps.
- The specifications for a common residential circuit are 120V/15A
- When calculating formulas, current is labelled as “I”.
- The opposing force in electrical current.
- When electrons flow through a conductor, they are opposed by an insulator. The insulator provides resistance.
- Coating on a wire is the insulator.
- Unit of resistance is the OHM.
Scientists usually draw electric circuits using symbols:
Type of circuit
- A circuit in which the same current flows through all components of the circuit.
- The current only has one path to take.
- If the lights are constructed in a series circuit (as many are), if just one bulb is missing or burnt out, the current cannot flow and the lights won’t turn on.
- Series circuits can be very frustrating because if they don’t work, you have to figure out which piece is responsible.
- is a circuit in which the components are arranged so that the current must break up (with bits flowing across each parallel branch) before meeting and combining again.
- Because the current divides, each component is assured a charge.
- And if one path breaks, the other paths will still work because they aren’t reliant on each other.
- Example: If you’re looking for new Christmas lights, check that they’re in a parallel circuit arrangement if you want to avoid a lot of hassle.
- Houses are always built with parallel circuits so that if one light burns out, your entire house won’t lose power.
- This circuit is a combination of the series and parallel circuits.
- Some sections of the circuit are series and others are parallel.
Ohm’s law (George law):
- Contain 3 main things that present in all the operational circuits and all of them is having a a relationship. The 3 main things are:
- The reaction between this can be seen when the voltage is increase, so thus the current will increase in direct proportion. As example below:
When the voltage increases from 6 volts to 9 volts, the current will automatically increase in direct proportion.
- However, the reaction of resistance with the current is in opposite direction. It is because when the resistance is increase, the current flow will be decrease in direct proportion as an example below:
when the voltage is remaining at the same volt which is 12 volts, but the resistance is increase from 3Ω to 6Ω. We can see the lighting is getting dim that is means the current flow is decrease in direct proportion.
- Ohm’s law can be calculating by using this formula:
- V = IR
- I = V/R
- R = V/R
IF ANY TWO VALUES IN CIRCUIT ARE KNOWN, THE THIRD VALUES CAN BE CALCULATED
Type of phases
· Used in most homes and small businesses
· Able to supply ample power for most smaller customers, including homes and small, non-industrial businesses
· Adequate for running motors up to about 5 horsepower; a single phase motor draws significantly more current than the equivalent 3-phase motor, making 3-phase power a more efficient choice for industrial applications
· Is the distribution of alternating current electric power using a system in which all the voltages of the supply vary in unison.
· Single-phase distribution is used when loads are mostly lighting and heating, with few large electric motors.
· A single-phase supply connected to an alternating current electric motor does not produce a revolving magnetic field; single-phase motors need additional circuits for starting, and such motors are uncommon above 10 kW in rating.
Three phase system
· Common in large businesses, as well as industry and manufacturing around the globe
· Increasingly popular in power-hungry, high-density data centers
· Expensive to convert from an existing single phase installation, but 3-phase allows for smaller, less expensive wiring and lower voltages, making it safer and less expensive to run
· Highly efficient for equipment designed to run on 3-phase
· Common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.
· It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power.
· It is also used to power large motors and other heavy loads.
To illustrate the difference between single phase and three phase, imagine a lone paddler in a canoe. He can only move himself forward while his paddle moves through the water. When he lifts the paddle out of the water to prepare for the next stroke, the power supplied to the canoe is zero.
Now picture the same canoe with three paddlers. If their strokes are synchronized so each is separated by 1/3 of a stroke cycle, the canoe receives constant and consistent propulsion across the water. More power is supplied and the canoe moves across the water more smoothly and efficiently.