Building Services Assignment

hello! I am one of the member of group H for the building services assignment. We have 5 members per group. In this website, we will share our knowledge which is related to building services. We are currently working for it at the moment, so we will try our very best to keep updating very soon. As I mentioned earlier, our group create this website not just for fun. It is actually for educational purpose. That’s all for me. Thank you.





Communications technology is an extensional term for technology in communicated in the long distance which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middle ware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.


There are several types of communication technology which is include below, and these technological resources can make it possible for people to communicate in a long distance.

  1. Email
  2. Texting
  3. Instant messaging
  4. Social networking
  5. Tweeting
  6. Blogging
  7. Video conferencing


  • A central processing unit (CPU) is an important part of every computer. The CPU sends signals to control the other parts of the computer, almost like how a brain controls a body.
  • The CPU is an electronic machine that works on a list of computer things to do, called instructions. It reads the list of instructions and does (executes) each one in order. A list of instructions that a CPU can run is a computer program.
  • The speed that a CPU works at is measured in hertz(Hz). Modern processors often run so fast that gigahertz (GHz) is used instead. One gigahertz is one billion cycles per second.
  • Most CPU’s used in desktop (home) computers are made by either Intelor Advanced Micro Devices (usually shortened to AMD). Some other companies that make CPU’s are ARM, IBM, and Sun Micro- systems. Most of their CPU’s are used in embedded systems for more specialized things, like in mobile phones, cars, game consoles, or in the military.


  • creating information
  • takes information and converts it to a signal.


  • takes the signal from the channel and converts it back into usable information
  • receives information transmitted without any changes.



Throughout the world, every country has a country code list that is unique, making it easy to place calls anywhere in the world to any other county. However, before you dial international calling codes, you need to notify the telephone system by including all the appropriate information.

The international direct dial (IDD) designations are the international phone codes you add to international numbers. IDDs differ from one country to another. For example, to dial France from the United States and the United Kingdom, two different codes need to be added at the beginning of the international phone number.



The expanding limit of CATV frameworks has produced an interest for more program material than can be monetarily created with nearest offices. A conceivable arrangement is an across the country satellite circulation framework committed to CATV which would give the extra material specifically to the CATV head-end.

The framework comprises of three satellites, covering the Eastern, Central, and Western segments of the United States. In view of trade-offs of range accessibility and low-clamor intensifiers, the 12 GHz recurrence band has been chosen for the satellite to terminal connection. The proposed terminal uses a settled high-productivity 10 feet reception apparatus with greatly straightforward yet inflexible development. A minimal effort burrow diode intensifier is utilized for the collector front end. After the important down-transformation, identification of each channel is performed at the standard 70 MHz IF recurrence. The required satellites could be propelled on an Atlas Centaur dispatch vehicle utilizing present innovation. The satellites would measure an inexact 1500Ib and produce 5 kW of dc control.


Cable service is the transmission to subscribers of video programming, or other programming service.  This definition includes any subscriber selection required in choosing video programming or other programming service.

Cable programming service includes all program channels on the cable system that are not included in basic service, but are not separately offered as per-channel or per-program services.  Pursuant to a 1996 federal law, the rates charged for cable programming services tiers provided after March 31, 1999 are not regulated.  There may be one or more tiers of cable programming service.

Per-channel or per-program service includes those cable services that are provided as single-channel tiers by the cable operator, and individual programs for which the cable operator charges a separate rate Neither of these services is regulated by the local franchising authorities or the Commission.

local exchange carrier (LEC) is a telephone company which provides local telephone service.

multi channel video programming distributor (MVPD) is any person such as, but not limited to, a cable operator, a multi channel multi point distribution service, a direct broadcast satellite service, or a television receive-only satellite program distributor, who makes available for purchase, by subscribers or customers, multiple channels of video programming.


Regulations implemented pursuant to the Children’s Television Act of 1990 restrict the amount of commercial matter that cable operators may cablecast on programs originally produced and broadcast primarily for children 12 years old and younger.  Cable operators may transmit no more than 10.5 minutes of commercial matter per hour during children’s programming on weekends and no more than 12 minutes of commercial matter per hour on weekdays.  Cable systems must maintain records available for public inspection which document compliance with the rule.


Access channels typically provide community-oriented programming, such as local news, public announcements and government meetings.  They are usually programmed by individuals or groups, on either public, educational or governmental access channels or on commercial leased access channels.

Origination channels are usually programmed by the cable system and may include many types of specialized program packages such as movies, sports, national news and public affairs, feature entertainment, children’s programming or programming for specific ethnic or other minority groups.

The Commission’s rules do not require cable operators to originate programming.  Operators who originate programming, however, are required to comply with the Commission’s program content rules.


Under the 1984 Cable Act, local franchising authorities may require that cable operators set aside channels for public, educational, or governmental (“PEG”) use.  In addition, franchising authorities may require cable operators to provide services, facilities, and equipment for the use of these channels.  Many cable systems include several PEG channels.

In general, cable operators are not permitted to control the content of programming on PEG channels.  Cable operators may impose non-content-based requirements, such as minimum production standards, and may mandate equipment user training.

PEG channel capacity which is not in use for its designated purpose may, with the franchising authority’s permission, be used by the cable operator to provide other services.  Under certain conditions, a franchising authority may authorize the use of unused PEG channels to carry low power commercial television stations and local non- commercial educational television stations that are required by law.

Information relating to PEG channels may be obtained directly from the cable system or the local franchising authority.


In 1993 the Commission adopted rules pursuant to the 1992 Cable Act which address the “disposition, after a subscriber terminates service, of any cable installed by the cable operator within the premises of such subscriber.”  The home wiring rules are intended to encourage competition between multi channel video delivery services by allowing a consumer who voluntarily terminates cable service to use the wiring to receive a competing multi channel video delivery service, such as direct broadcast satellite, wireless cable (“MMDS”), or a different cable service, without the expense and inconvenience of installing new wire.

In 1997 the Commission expanded the scope of the home wiring rules to address disposition of “home run” wiring in multiple dwelling units (“MDUs”) such as apartments and condominiums.  “Home run” wiring is the wiring in an MDU that runs from the individual apartment/condominium unit to the point at which the wiring becomes devoted to an individual subscriber, typically the junction box.  The disposition rules for “home” wiring and “home run” wiring differ.

Under the Commission’s “home” wiring rules, cable subscribers may provide and install their own cable home wiring within their premises and may connect additional home wiring within their premises to the wiring installed and owned by the cable operator prior to the termination of cable service.  Under this rule, customers may select who will install their home wiring (e.g., themselves, the cable operator or a commercial contractor).  In addition, customers may connect additional wiring, splitters or other equipment to the cable operator’s wiring, or redirect or reroute the home wiring, so long as no electronic or physical harm is caused to the cable system and the physical integrity of the cable operator’s wiring remains intact.  Cable subscribers are not permitted to physically cut, improperly terminate, substantially alter or otherwise destroy cable operator-owned inside wiring.  To protect the cable system from signal leakage, electronic and physical harm and other types of degradation, the cable operator may require that any home wiring (including passive splitters, connectors and other equipment used in the installation of home wiring) meets reasonable technical specifications, not to exceed the technical specifications of such equipment installed by the cable operator.  However, if the subscriber’s connection to, redirection of or rerouting of the home wiring causes electronic or physical harm to the cable system, the cable operator may impose additional technical specifications to eliminate such harm.

When a cable operator owns the “home” wiring within the subscriber’s home or apartment/condominium and the subscriber voluntarily terminates cable service, the cable operator may leave such wiring in place, or may notify the subscriber that it will remove the wiring unless the subscriber purchases the wire from the operator (on a replacement cost basis).  When the subscriber contacts the cable operator to terminate cable service voluntarily, the cable operator, if it owns and intends to remove the home wiring, must inform the subscriber:

(1) that the cable operator owns the cable home wiring;

(2) that the cable operator intends to remove it;

(3) that the subscriber has the right to purchase it; and

(4) what the per-foot replacement cost (i.e., the total charge) for the wiring would be.

If the consumer declines to purchase the wiring, the cable operator must remove the wiring at no charge to the subscriber within seven days of the subscriber’s decision.  If the cable company fails to remove the wiring, it forfeits its right to remove the wire or restrict its use at any later time.  The cable company must pay for any damage done to the subscriber’s home while removing the wire.

When a cable operator owns the “home run” wiring in an MDU (e.g., an apartment or condominium) and the cable operator no longer has a contractual right to provide service to any or all residents in the MDU, the MDU owner may notify the cable operator that it intends to permit a competitor to provide such services.  The cable operator will have 30 days to decide whether it will:

(1) remove its “home run” wiring;

(2) abandon that wiring; or

(3) sell the wiring to the MDU owner or the new cable services provider.

If the operator decides to sell the wiring, the selling price will be negotiated or, failing successful negotiations, be determined by arbitration.  The significant difference between the disposition rules for “home” wiring and “home run” wiring is that the price for home wiring is the replacement cost of the wiring itself.  The price for sale of “home run” wiring is a negotiated, and presumably higher, price representing the value of that wiring to the cable provider.

The point at which “home” wiring becomes “home run” wiring is the demarcation point.  The demarcation point is typically about 12 inches outside where the wiring enters the subscriber’s MDU unit.  But if home wiring running from a subscriber’s MDU unit is not “accessible” at that point, the wiring maintains its “home” wiring characterization until it becomes accessible, at which point it becomes “home run” wiring.  The Commission has ruled that home wiring that is behind brick, metal conduit, cinder blocks, and sheet rock is inaccessible and remains home wiring until it reaches an access point such as a door or junction box.  Such wiring is subject to the “home “wiring disposition rules until it reaches that access point.


  • Access control:
    • Non-Electronic Access Control4
      • Master Key Systems allow for control of access to specified areas by key issuance
      • Restricted Keyways are a way to reduce or eliminate the unauthorized duplication of keys. duplication of keys.
      • These types of systems can lock an end user into a contract with a service provider.5
    • Electronic Access Control
      • Electronic access control has been around long enough been around long enough that most of us are familiar with seeing a reader or keypad at an entrance.
      • The involved components what is behind and how it works is foreign to many.
      • The Controller is the heart and brain of a system. It interrogates the Single Door Stand Alone Panel Based reader input and grants or denies entry. It maintains audit trails. Controls automated relays (scheduled lock/unlock).


    • Intrusion detection:
      • Intrusion detection (ID) is a type of security management system for computers and networks.
      • An ID system gathers and analyzes information from various areas within a computer or a network to identify possible security breaches, which include both intrusions (attacks from outside the organization) and misuse (attacks from within the organization).
      • An intrusion detection system can be set to detect water leaks, fire, an open window or any other anomaly which may put property or personnel at risk. The intrusion detection centre automatically reports an incident by alerting a security company or by sending a message to a mobile phone, for example.
      • With the help of an intrusion detection systems connected to video surveillance and access control it can be produced comprehensive data of an incident to be used in, for example, solving crime.
      • Its includes the many types of sensors and alarm systems now available.
      • Infrared motion sensors can be ceiling- or wall-mounted; although such detectors are mostly used to protect interior spaces, there are motion detectors available for exterior use.9
    • Other security components:
      • Control Panel10
    • The control panel serves as the main hub for the security system. It’s usually a touchpad that allows you to enter passcodes for arming and disarming the system, and some have a voice control feature. The control panel communicates with other security system components, like motion sensors and cameras, and ensures they all work together. It also connects you directly to your alarm company’s monitoring system.
      • Motion Sensors11

      Motion sensors detect when an intruder enters your home. They use vibration, ultrasonic waves, microwave pulses, infrared heat, or any combination of these to sense when someone is moving within your home or on your property. They’re essentially electronic watchdogs that notify your control panel when a breach occurs.

      • Cameras12

      Security cameras come in wireless and wired versions and can be concealed both on the inside and outside of your home. These cameras capture motion and activity, and many can send you the video feed to an accompanying app, giving you an eye on your home wherever you are. There are cameras that pan and tilt, static, or swivel, and you can get some that include night vision, all depending on your needs.

    • Security Alarm System
      • A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion and unauthorized entry into a building or other area.
      • Security alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military properties for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as well as personal protection against intruders.
      • Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection; combination systems provide both fire and intrusion protection
    • Component of Alarm System
      • Premises control unit (PCU), Alarm Control Panel (ACP), or simply panel13
      • The “brain” of the system, it reads sensor inputs, tracks arm/disarm status, and signals intrusions.
      • Sensors
      • Devices which detect intrusions. Sensors may be placed at the perimeter of the protected area, within it, or both. Sensors can detect intruders by a variety of methods, such as monitoring doors and windows for opening.


      • Alerting devices
      • These indicate an alarm condition. Most commonly, these are bells, sirens, and/or flashing lights.


      • Keypads
      • Small devices, typically wall-mounted, which function as the human-machine interface to the system. In addition to buttons, keypads typically feature indicator lights, a small multi-character display, or both.


      • Interconnections between components
      • This may consist of direct wiring to the control unit, or wireless links with local power supplies.
      • Security devices
      • Devices to detect unauthorized entry or movements such as spotlights, cameras & lasers. 


Solar Energy System


Lately, the world has luckily turned out to be progressively cognisant of the critical capability of sun oriented vitality as a trade for non‐renewable energy source vitality. The sun is a spotless, boundless and practically limitless vitality source, giving each hour on earth as much vitality as the entire world needs in a year. Demonstrated advances can change its radiation into warmth, power and even cool, and are presently to a great extent accessible at moderate costs. It is generally perceived as dependent solely on hot sunny weather to be effective. In fact, it can be successfully used on cloudy days, as it is the solar radiation which is effective. The average amount of solar radiation falling on a south facing inclined roof is shown to vary between about 900 and 1300 Kw/m2 per year depending on the location. Solar energy has a flat plate ‘black radiator’ solar panel to absorb solar energy in water, which is transferred for storage in an insulated cylinder. Solar energy, in its active or passive forms, is able to deliver the entire set of building energy needs: space heating and lighting, domestic hot water (DHW), electricity, and recently also space cooling.



Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body). It has a specific spectrum and intensity that depends only on the body’s temperature, which is assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be uniform and constant.

The thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by many ordinary objects can be approximated as black-body radiation. A perfectly insulated enclosure that is in thermal equilibrium internally contains black-body radiation and will emit it through a hole made in its wall, provided the hole is small enough to have negligible effect upon the equilibrium.


As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black-body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. The black-body radiation graph is also compared with the classical model of Rayleigh and Jeans.


Solar panels, also known as modules, contain photovoltaic cells made from silicon that transform incoming sunlight into electricity rather than heat. (”Photovoltaic” means electricity from light — photo = light, voltaic = electricity.)

Solar photovoltaic cells consist of a positive and a negative film of silicon placed under a thin slice of glass. As the photons of the sunlight beat down upon these cells, they knock the electrons off the silicon. The negatively-charged free electrons are preferentially attracted to one side of the silicon cell, which creates an electric voltage that can be collected and channel. This current is gathered by wiring the individual solar panels together in series to form a solar photovoltaic array. Depending on the size of the installation, multiple strings of solar photovoltaic array cables terminate in one electrical box, called a fused array combiner. Contained within the combiner box are fuses designed to protect the individual module cables, as well as the connections that deliver power to the inverter. The electricity produced at this stage is DC (direct current) and must be converted to AC (alternating current) suitable for use in your home or business.


Solar panels convert the sun’s light into using solar energy using N-type and P-type semiconductor material.  When sunlight is absorbed by these materials, the solar energy knocks electrons loose from their atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity. This process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage) is called the photovoltaic (PV) effect.  Currently, solar panels convert most of the visible light spectrum and about half of the ultraviolet and infrared light spectrum to using solar energy.

Solar energy technologies use the sun’s energy and light to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity and even cooling, for homes, businesses, and industry.


How does a solar collector work?

A solar collector is basically a flat box and composed of three main parts, a transparent cover, tubes which carry a coolant and an insulated backplate. The solar collector works on the greenhouse effect principle; solar radiation incident upon the transparent surface of the solar collector is transmitted through this surface. The inside of the solar collector is usually evacuated, the energy contained within the solar collector is basically trapped and thus heats the coolant contained within the tubes. The tubes are usually made of copper, and the backplate is painted black to help absorb solar radiation. The solar collector is usually insulated to avoid heat losses.


Energy Storage Systems


Combining energy storage with both renewable and traditional power sources will output clean, conditioned, and uninterrupted AC power. Energy storage with energy management technology provides economic benefits while protecting critical necessities.

A Solar Energy System with Energy Storage Will…

  1. Provide Emergency Power During Electrical Outages


Although electricity produced by a solar system will reduce your dependence on the utility grid during the day and save you money, grid-tied systems will automatically shut off during a utility blackout, as required by law. If your system isn’t tied to the grid, it is still impractical to rely on it exclusively as your source of electricity during an electrical blackout due to its intermittent production of electricity, even on a sunny day.

However, if that intermittent solar electricity is sent to an energy storage unit (or battery bank) to be saved during high production periods, the unit can provide a seamless source of quality electricity to the home throughout the entire day or at night if there’s a power outtage.

  1. Reduce Your Dependence on the Electric Grid


Besides being able to take advantage of the free electricity generated by your solar modules during the day, you can also utilize the battery bank to supply your home’s power during “on-peak” hours to save money.

The batteries, which are recharged from the solar array or from the grid during “off-peak” periods, can be used to eliminate expensive electricity rates during “on-peak” periods.

Additionally, New Jersey’s Net Metering law enables you to transfer excess energy from your solar system to the grid for credit (and spin your meter backwards).

  1. Enable You to Manage Your Electrical Usage


The operation of the energy manager is primarily controlled through two modes to ensure that you are best covered for your current and future situations.

The first specifically reduces “on-peak” usage by using the batteries to supply power to the home during the day.

The second mode will conserve battery power in anticipation of a power interruption.

In the event of a utility failure, the system will automatically sense the outage and supply your home with power within milliseconds, limiting the electrical usage to essential circuits.

  1. Allow You to Monitor & Control Your Electrical ConsumptioN


The system’s monitoring gateway requires no land-line or internet connection; instead, its signal travels wirelessly using a dedicated, encrypted and secure connection to allow you instant access to the system’s performance.

Just log in from your computer or mobile phone and you’ll find current, detailed activity reports regarding the system’s energy consumption, solar production, battery charge, daily electrical usage, energy use, and weather forecasts stored securely online.

When trouble strikes and the system’s activity becomes altered, the system interacts with the central station to send out an immediate alert via email or text message.

How Energy Storage Works

Because an energy storage system combines renewable and traditional power technologies, it can operate in different modes under various circumstances to provide your home with the most cost effective and energy efficient outcome.

On Sunny Days


The solar panels will fully charge the batteries and provide free solar electricity throughout the home. Any surplus electricity generated by the solar system will be sent to the utility grid, turning your meter backwards, for credit.

On Cloudy Days


If the solar panels are unable to generate electricity during “on-peak” periods, power will be supplied from the battery bank to conserve energy costs.

At Night


At night, during “off-peak” periods, electricity from the utility is used to power the house and recharge the batteries.

During a Utility Brownout


Rain or shine, the system will immediately sense the power disturbance and start distributing electricity from the solar panels or batteries. The system will limit electric usage within the house to selected circuits and also ensure that quality power is provided to motorized appliances.

During a Utility Blackout


The system will automatically respond to the power failure and distribute electricity from the solar panels or batteries to essential circuits throughout the house.

House appliances using solar energy

Solar Hot Water Heater

Solar hot-water heaters are becoming popular appliances. A set of photovoltaic panels captures heat energy from the sun to heat water for bathing, washing dishes, and other household uses. The units can be direct or indirect. A direct water heater passes heat energy directly into an insulated water tank, where it is then pumped throughout the home. Indirect systems use a series of refrigerant-filled tubes to transfer heat energy into the home, where it is then used to heat the water. Direct systems work best in areas that rarely experience freezing temperatures, while indirect systems can be used in almost any type of climate.

According to the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, solar hot-water heaters cost about $175 a year to run, compared to $350 for a traditional gas-fired storage water heater. Best of all, solar systems generally feature an electric backup that operates if solar power is interrupted or insufficient.

Photovoltaic Panels

Traditional solar panels could be used to provide heat to the home, but were not designed to power appliances. Modern photovoltaic panels use a slightly different method of collecting solar energy, and can produce enough electricity to power every appliance in the average home. Homeowners install these panels on roof or ground racks, where they collect solar energy whenever the sun is shining. This energy passes through a series of wires into a transformer, where it is converted into the standard 110 volts used in the home. Excess energy is stored outdoors in a battery backup, which provides power even when the sun isn’t shining.

Installers can help you choose the correct quantity and type of photovoltaic panels based on the electrical demands of your home. If you have limited space available, you can use smaller panels to power individual appliances through a dedicated circuit.

Solar Ovens


A solar oven is a cooking appliance that runs entirely on solar energy. It contains mini-solar or photovoltaic panels to collect and absorb heat energy from the sun. Using this heat, the oven can cook almost any type of food. Solar ovens provide a slow-cooking process similar to a Crock pot, and can only be used outdoors. Using an optional reflector, users can increase the temperature of these ovens up to 400 degrees, which means that cooking can be completed much more quickly.

Solar Flashlights

Solar flashlights feature solar photovoltaic panels which collect energy-intensive sunlight, ambient light, and even artificial light, before converting it to electrical energy. This energy then powers the bulb, which is often an extremely powerful and durable LED bulb. You’ll never need to replace batteries, which cost money and are hard to dispose of in an environmentally friendly You’ll never need to replace batteries, which need to be replaced and are difficult to dispose of in an environmentally friendly manner. Plus, they work in extreme temperatures — something most battery-operated appliances fail to do.

Of course, you need a source of light in order to power them, and their beam isn’t always as wide or as strong as battery-operated flashlights. But they can be left for long periods of time without worrying that the battery will die.

Solar Chargers


Solar chargers offer the advantage of powering a wide range of appliances with free, green sunlight via small, easily transportable solar panelsThere is a range of solar chargers on the market with the ability to charge pretty much any portable device, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, and GPS devices. Not only are solar chargers a cheaper and greener way of powering up your portable devices, they give you the ability to charge your appliances on the go, wherever you are. Of course, an alternative to investing in solar powered appliances is to install solar panels on your home in order to power your entire house with the energy of the sun. Investing in solar power will lower your carbon footprint, save you money in the long term, and give you the satisfaction of knowing that your home is powered by nature.


The solar energy for hot water system is using a solar panel that is heat the water through a storage tank. Solar energy for hot water system also known as solar water heater or solar domestic hot water systems. This system is a cost-effective way to generate a hot water for us because it fuel is an energy supply by sun. There are two different type of solar energy hot water system which is as below:

  • Active solar water heating system

In active solar water heating system, it is contained the circulating pumps and controls which is it reaction are differently by its type. Active solar water heating system divided into two another type which is:

  1. Direct circulation systems


The pumps are circulating the household water through the collectors and into the home.


  1. Indirect circulation system

The pumps are circulating a non- freezing water, which is it heat- transfer fluid through the collectors and heat exchanger. This heat will make the water heat and then flows to the home.


      2. Passive solar water heating system


Passive solar energy is divided into basic types which is as below:

  1. Integral collector- storage passive system

Integral collector- storage passive system usually used in the areas where the temperatures are rarely fall below the freezing because it is work well in the households with significantly in daytime and evening when the hot-water needs

2. Thermosyphon system

This type is using a water that flows through the system when warm water as cooler water. In this system, the collector should be installed below the storage tank so that the warm water will rise into the tank.



  • To install the system of solar energy for hot water are depends on many factors. These factors are including as below:
  1. solar resource
  2. climate
  3. local building code requirements
  4. safety issues
  • After installation, you should properly be maintaining your system to keep it running smoothly.
  • Plumbing and other conventional water heating components require the same maintenance as conventional systems.
  • Glazing may need to be cleaned in dry climates where rainwater doesn’t provide a natural rinse.
  • Regular maintenance on simple systems can be as infrequent as every 3–5 years, preferably by a solar contractor.
  • Systems with electrical components usually require a replacement part or two after 10 years.




Allows air that has entered the system to escape, and in turn prevents air locks that would restrict flow of the heat-transfer fluid.


Protects system components from excessive pressures and temperatures. A pressure temperature relief valve is always plumbed to the solar storage (as well as auxiliary) tank.


Protects components from excessive pressures that may build up in system plumbing. In any system where the collector loop can be isolated from the storage tank, a pressure relief valve must be installed on the collector loop.


Is used in indirect systems to monitor pressure within the fluid loop. In both direct and indirect systems, such gauges can readily indicate if a leak has occurred in the system plumbing.


Admits atmospheric pressure into system piping, which allows the system to drain. This valve is usually located at the collector outlet plumbing but also may be installed anywhere on the collector return line.


These valves are used to manually isolate various subsystems. Their primary use is to isolate the collectors or other components before servicing.


Used to drain the collector loop, the storage tank and, in some systems, the heat exchanger or drain-back reservoir. In indirect systems, they are also used as fill valves.


Allow fluid to flow in only one direction. In solar systems, these valves prevent thermosiphoning action in the system plumbing.


Are set to open at near freezing temperatures, and are installed on the collector return line in a location close to where the line penetrates the roof.


Provide an indication of system fluid temperatures.




Installation – Roof

Every roof structure that solar collectors will be mounted on must be carefully inspected for structural integrity. Depending on your location, many permitting authorities will require an in-depth description and possibly an accurate analysis of the load carrying capacity of a roof where solar collectors will be mounted.

  • All non-residential buildings over 50,000 cubic feet that will have solar collectors mounted on them will require a set of approved plans in order to receive a building permit.
  • Document the construction of the roof. Most municipalities will require structural information about buildings where solar collectors will be mounted on them in order to receive a building permit. The more information you can collect about the structure of the building will help facilitate this process. Some municipalities will require calculations to show that the weight loading of the solar collector array will not adversely affect the building structure

Installation – Awning Mount

Where the collector array is hung on a wall, the wall must be strong enough to hold the weight of the collectors and racking.

  • Distribute the weight over as many building framing members as possible. Unistrut-type racking bolted to the framing members can distribute the weight evenly on the wall.
  • Do not just bolt/screw fasteners into the sheathing alone, bolt/screw into the framing members of the wall.
  • If the wall has a brick veneer, the racking must pass through the veneer to the wall framing members behind the brick.

Most flat plate collectors cannot be hung from the top rail of the collector because the collector was not designed to be mounted in this way.

  • To strengthen a flat plate collector so it can be hung from its top rail, install two pieces of aluminum angle iron connecting the top rail to the bottom rail, spaced one foot in from each side. This will hold the collector together.
  • Another method is to install a rack to the wall and then flush mount the collectors to the rack.


Installation – General

  • Use water-soluble flux.
  • Rinse solar loop with cold, then hot water until clear (with boiler cleaner added), then follow with a hot then cold water rinse before filling solar loop with solar fluid. This will clean out any dirt, oils and flux residues.
  • Use only “Solar Rated” Propylene Glycol. The temperature rating should be at least 320°F continuous.
  • Check glycol with refractometer after filling to ensure proper freeze protection.
  • Dilute glycol with distilled or de-mineralized water only.
  • If using a water-only drainback, use distilled or de-mineralized water as the solar fluid.
  • Do not use di-electric unions on stainless steel storage tanks.
  • If piping travels down the side of a house, consider using vinyl two-piece chase.
  • Properly seal rim joist penetrations.

Installation – Controller

  • Ground collector array and piping with a continuous length of ground cable, no splices. Terminate ground at main electrical panel ground lug.
  • Collectors and solar loop piping must be properly grounded as per NFPA 780 (national standard for lightening protection systems)
  • Use proper size and type of sensor wire.
  • Use jacket sensor wire that is rated for outdoor use
  • Required: twisted wire (#18 minimum) with a shielded cable.
  • Only attach shield to ground lug in controller and trim other end of shield.
  • Use watertight connectors or solder connections. Corroded sensor wire splices are a common problem that can be easily remedied.
  • Utilize a telecommunications splice as an option.


Installation – Sensors

  • Use heavy-duty high temperature-rated sensors.
  • The best location for the collector sensor is on top of the upper collector manifold, preferably inside the collector
  • If sensor is clamped outside of the collector, insulate very well.
  • Where feasible, use immersion wells instead of clamping methods.
  • Use heat transfer grease on all sensors.
  • Securely clamp sensor to collector and/or tank.


Installation – Heat Exchanger

  • Install isolation valves and drain/fill ports on the waterside of the heat exchanger to facilitate cleaning, especially if the heat exchanger is the plate type. Remove the handles on the isolation valves so they will not inadvertently be closed. Hang the handles nearby.
  • Insulate heat exchanger well.
  • Label the heat exchanger (single or double wall).

Installation – Potable Side of System

  • Use a domestic water thermal expansion tank where there is a backflow preventer on the cold -water inlet. Common applications are commercial buildings and well systems (often the well tank is not sized to accommodate extra expansion, especially in large systems) .).  Place the expansion tank so there is not a check valve between the storage tanks and the expansion tank.


As the sun heats water in the parallel heater tubes, warmed water rises by convection in the tubes and enters the storage tank while cooler water from the tank falls into the tubes for further heating. Heated water is drawn from a fitting at tank top while incoming cool water is fed into the tank bottom. The system heats water and stores it in the reservoir tank using only natural convection with no pump required.


The simplest collector is a water-filled metal tank in a sunny place. The sun heats the tank. This was how the first systems worked. This setup would be inefficient due to the equilibrium effect: as soon as heating of the tank and water begins, the heat gained is lost to the environment and this continues until the water in the tank reaches ambient temperature. The challenge is to limit the heat loss.

  • The storage tank can be situated lower than the collectors, allowing increased freedom in system design and allowing pre-existing storage tanks to be used.
  • The storage tank can be hidden from view.
  • The storage tank can be placed in conditioned or semi-conditioned space, reducing heat loss.

Drainback tanks can be used.










Lightning Protection System


  • Lightning is a dazzling bluish white light produce by clouds. It usually accompanied by thunder.
  • Lightning is a gigantic electrical spark travelling between cloud to cloud to earth containing an average charge of 30 to 50 lakhs volts and a current of 30 kilo amperes with a speed of 220 km per hour.
  • When the clouds fill up with electric charges, the positive charges or proton from the top of the cloud and negative charges from at the bottom, it causes lightning.

Theories of occurring lightning

  • Polarization Mechanism Theory

As ice falls through the Earth’s atmosphere, they become electrically polarized.

  • Electrostatic Induction Theory

Two opposing charges get separated. The electricity gets stored in the middle of a cumulonimbus cloud. There the electricity collides with rain.

  • The Discharge Theory

Electricity is made when there’s enough positive and negative energy together.



Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS


Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:

  1. LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning,
  2. LPS for Protection against overvoltage on incoming conductors and conductor systems,
  3. LPS for Protection against the electromagnetic pulse of the lightning.
First: LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning

This type of LPS protects the building from damage by direct strike lightning but doesn’t prevent the lightning striking the building.

This type of LPS can be divided into:-

  1. Conventional lightning protection system,
  2. Non-Conventional lightning protection system.
 1- Types of Conventional Lightning Protection System

The Conventional Lightning Protection System includes (2) different types as follows:

  • Franklin Rod LPS,
  • Franklin/Faraday Cage LPS.
2- Types of Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System

The Conventional Lightning Protection System includes (2) different types as follows:

1- Active Attraction LPS, which includes:

  • Improved single mast system (Blunt Ended Rods),
  •  Early streamer Emission System.

2- Active Prevention/Elimination LPS, which includes:

  • Charge Transfer System (CTS),
  • Dissipation Array System (DAS).
Notes on different Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS

Each system’s design requires the following:

  • The air terminal or strike termination device must be positioned so that it is the highest point on the structure.
  • The lightning protection system must be solidly and permanently grounded. Poor or high resistance connections to ground are the leading cause of lightning system failure for each one of these systems.
  • None of these systems claims to protect against 100% of the possibility of a lightning stroke arriving near protective area. A compromise must be made between protection and economics.

Mechanism of lightning occurrence

In most cases the mechanism for occurrence of thunder clouds is rising air currents due to the air being heated near the ground by strong sunlight. The air in this rising air current is cooled, and the charge is separated when hail is generated, so the thunder clouds grow large due to the effect of electricity being generated.

Normally, a positive charge accumulates in the top of a thunder cloud and a negative charge accumulates in the bottom, so positively charged static electricity is induced near the ground surface. In this way, a strong electric field is generated between the thunder cloud and the earth, and when this exceeds the insulation capacity of the air, lightning is generated.

l 2

Lightning generation mechanism


Effects Of Lightning Strike:

l 3

The effects of lightning are those of a high-strength impulse current that propagates initially in a gaseous environment (the atmosphere), and then in a solid, more or less conductive medium (the ground):

  • visual effects (flash)
  • acoustic effects
  • thermal effect
  • electrodynamics effects
  • electrochemical effects
  • effects on a living being (human or animal)

Lightning causes two major types of accidents:

  • accidents caused by a direct stroke when the lightning strikes a building or a specific zone. This can cause considerable damage, usually by fire. In order to prevent any risk of accident, lightning air terminals should be used.
  • accidents caused indirectly, as when the lightning strikes or causes power surges in power cables or transmission links. Hence the need to protect with Surge Protection Devices the equipment at risk against the surge voltage and indirect currents generated.

Direct effects

  • Thermal effects: These effects are linked to the amount of charge associated with lightning strikes. They result in fusion points melting holes of varying sizes at the point of impact of materials with high resistivity. For material which is a poor conductor, a large amount of energy is released in the form of heat. The heating of water vapour contained in the material results in very high abrupt localized pressure which may cause it to explode.
  • Effects due to the initiation: In the event of a lightning strike a substantial increase in the ground potential of the installation will occur depending on the grounding network and soil resistivity. Potential differences will also be created between various metal elements. Hence the need to pay particular attention when installing earth rods and inter-connection of metal structures adjoining the conductors.
  • Acoustic effects – thunder: Thunder is due to the sudden increase in pressure (2 to 3 atmospheres) of the discharge channel developed by the electrodynamic forces during the lightning flash. The duration of a thunder clap depends on the length of the ionized channel. For high frequencies, propagation of the spectral components released by the shock wave is perpendicular to the channel. For low frequencies, propagation is omnidirectional; hence the different forms of rumbling or claps heard by an observer according to the distance and orientation of the successive channels used by the lightning flash.
  • Luminous effects: A lightning strike nearby violently sensitizes the retina of an observer. The eye is dazzled and vision is lost for several long seconds.
  • Electrodynamic effects: Electrodynamic effects between conductors and other parts occur due to large magnetic field of the lightning current. This results in substantial mechanical forces, both attractive and repulsive, that are all the stronger when the conductors are close together or the current is high. Lightning Phenomenon, Effects and Protection Of Structures From Lightning
  • Electrochemical effects: The fleeting nature of lightning impacts (compared to stray ground currents) mean that these effects are highly negligible and without influence on earth rods.


Indirect Effects

The ever increasing use of sensitive electronics means that electrical equipment is becoming more and more vulnerable to transient overvoltages caused by lightning.The overvoltages are either of atmospheric origin or industrial origin. The most harmful are however atmospheric overvoltages which are the result of three main effects:

l 4

Conduction: An overvoltage that propagates along a conductor which has been in direct contact with the lightning strike. This effect is all the more destructive as the majority of the lightning energy is propagated through the entire network. This problem is resolved by fitting the installation with suitable device able to support high currents.

l 5

Induction: caused by the electromagnetic field radiated by the lightning strike. It generates an overvoltage on conductors within a range that is proportional to the power and the rate of speed variation of the lightning strike. Consequently, under the influence of abrupt variations in current, the cables, and even the ducts which act as aerials, may be subjected to destructive overvoltages. This is the reason that placing the network underground does not guarantee lightning protection.

l 6

Rising up from the ground: When a lightning strike hits, an overvoltage can rise up from the ground attempting to find a more favourable path to ground. This can, in part, be dealt with through a) equipotential bonding between the metal structures and ground of the entire installation of a structure. b) overvoltage protection installed on services.



  • Elements of LPS

The elements of lightning protection system are as below:

  1. a network of roof-top air terminals
  2. a network of ground terminations
  3. a network of conductors interconnecting the air terminals and grounds
  4. interconnections with metallic bodies
  5. surge suppression devices on all incoming power and communication lines

These elements are important, and it is an essential to a proper system of lightning protection system performance. Every function of these element is differently, which is as the first three elements above to intercept, conduct and dissipate the main lightning discharge. Meanwhile, the fourth element addresses the secondary effects of a lightning strike by limiting the dangers of the harmful current jumping or side flashing within a structure. Thus, the last element protects power lines and connected equipment from damaging currents traveling on utility lines. Failure to make proper provisions for any of these five elements can result in inadequate protection.

  • LPS Components, Fitting, and Accessoriesl 7

LPS components, fitting, and accessories are divided into 3 different main components which is important to complete lightning protection system.

  • Rod or ‘Air Terminals’
  1. The small, vertical protrusions designed to act as the ‘terminal’ for a lightning discharge.
  2. Rods can be found in different shapes, sizes and designs.
  3. Most of rods are topped with a tall, pointed needle or a smooth, polished sphere.
  4. The functionality of diverse types of lightning rods, and even the necessity of rods altogether, are subjects of many scientific debates
  • Conductor Cables
  1. Heavy cables (right) that carry lightning current from the rods to the ground.
  2. Cables are run along the tops and around the edges of roofs, then down one or more corners of a building to the ground rod.
  • Ground Rods
  1. Long, thick, heavy rods buried deep into the earth around a protected structure.
  2. The conductor cables are connected to these rods to complete a safe path for a lightning discharge around a structure.

Method of LPS Installation

Lightning protection system are important to be install. However, it is should be design and be approved as a LPS before the installation of it is start. Below shown the step of chart on the process to design a LPS.

l 8

After it is approved, the method of LPS installation will be make on the building. As below, it is the method of installation of lightning rods installation which is important to performed by technically qualified personnel and under the current regulations.

  1. The top of the light terminal shall be installed at least 2 meters over the area that it protects (including antennas, refrigerating towers, roofs and tanks)
  2. Each lightning rod shall be connected to at least two down conductors.
  3. The receiving antennas (TV, radio, telephone) should be connected directly or through and SPD or an isolated spark gap to the lightning protection system with a suitable conductor.
  4. The coaxial cable of the antennas should be protected with a surge protective devices.
  5. The metallic elements that rise above the roof should be connected to the closest down conductor.
  6. The routing of the down-conductor should be as straight as possible, following the shortest path, avoiding sharp bends or upward sections.
  7. The bend radii should not be less than 20cm.
  8. Down-conductors will be placed preferably at the external part of the structure (whenever possible), avoiding the proximity of electrical or gas conductors.
  9. The grounding system should be placed in a registry cage to do periodical inspections.
  10. The registry cage (or, in its absence each down-conductor) should be provided with a test joint to disconnect the earth termination system for enabling measurements.
  11. The resistance value measured using a conventional equipment should be the lowest possible (less than 10 Ω).
  12. This resistance should be measured on the earthing termination insulated from any other conductive component.
  13. All earthing system for a same structure should be interconnected.
  14. It is recommended to add Quibacsol mineral compound to achieve lower soil resistivity.





  • There are basically two types of gas:
  1. Natural gases(most common gasses)
  2. Artificial gases


  • The natural gasses are present in nature spontaneously. These include common gasses which are easily available through the air. While the artificial gasses are obtained by a man from some chemical reactions.
  • The natural gases are again of two types as:
  1. Elemental gases

These are the gasses formed along with matter on earth and other planets. These gasses are made of single element atoms. Examples of gasses include; Hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), noble gasses are the gasses in the atmosphere. While Chlorine (Cl2), fluorine (F2) are present in combination substances.

  1. Compound gases

These are also gasses formed in nature out of biological processes. Chemically, these are combinations of two or more elements. They are formed by the combination of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, nitrogen. Example; carbon-dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), etc.


  • These gasses are present even before life existed on earth. So, they are not harmful to nature if their concentration in the air ratio’s is not disturbed a lot.
  • The artificial gasesare those which are synthesized by chemical reactions. They are made of many elements besides those listed above.
  • These artificial gasses include chlorofluorocarbons, anaesthetics, sterilizing agents, etc.
  • These are meant for special needs of man but are not useful to nature. In turn, some of them are harmful to nature.


Example: Chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigerators cause harm to the ozone layer. This ozone layer is a layer used to protects us from the harmful UV rays of the sun rays from reaching the ground. Hence their use in refrigerators is discontinued.


  • Also, there are acidic gases(Example: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Hydrofluoric acid (HF)) Since they are volatile, they are used as a mixture of water. They have very low pH like.
  • Basic gases have pH more than 7. (Example: Ammonia (NH3)
  • Green House gases is a gas which is enhance the earth’s temperature. These gases include carbon dioxide, methane nitrous oxide etc. They lead to greenhouse effect where in the surface of earth is kept warm. If the concentration of these gases increases, it can lead to global warming.


  • Gases are highly compressible

An external force compresses the gas sample and decreases its volume, removing the external force allows the gas volume to increase.

  • Gases are thermally expandable

When a gas sample is heated, its volume increases, and when it is cooled its volume decreases.

  • Gases have low viscosity

Gases flow much easier than liquids or solids.

  • Most Gases have low densities

Gas densities are on the order of grams per litter whereas liquids and solids are grams per cubic cm, 1000 times greater.

  • Gases are infinitely miscible

Gases mix in any proportion such as in air, a mixture of many gases.


  • Divided into two different law, which is:
  1. Boyle’s law
  2. Charles’ law
  • These different laws are shown the different reaction of gas supply system which is relate to it pressure and temperature.


  • Based on the Boyle’s law, the increase of pressure can cause a gas to contract. Meanwhile, when the decrease of pressure can cause a gas to expand. It is shown as image above.


  • For the Charles’ law, the gas is reacting to the temperature. When the temperature surround is increase, the gas will be expanding and its contrast, which is when the temperature decrease, the gas will be contract.


  • Pressure Regulator


Pressure regulators is the valves that automatically cut off the flow of a gas or liquid when it is at a certain pressure. To reduce to a usable and safe pressure for different applications regulators are also used to allow high-pressure fluid supply tanks or lines. The function is to match the flow of gas through the regulator to the demand for gas placed upon it, whilst maintaining a constant output pressure. the regulator flow must decrease too when the load flow decreases. If the load flow increases, the regulator flow must increase it is used to keep the controlled pressure from decreasing due to a shortage of gas in the pressure system.


  • Ball Valve


Ball valves are a species of plug valves having a ball-shaped closure member. It is designed to restrict and control flow which have a ball inside the valve. A ball valve is a form of quarter-turn valve which uses a hollow, perforated and pivoting ball to control flow of gas through it. When the valve handle pivoted 90 degrees it will close, and the gas will flow when the ball’s hole is in line.

  • Gas pressure meter (Pressure gauge)


Pressure control panels are complete with pressure gauges for indication of the cylinder and outlet pressure. The pressure control panels can be supplied with contact pressure gauges which give a signal if the cylinder pressure drops below a certain set level. This signal can be passed to low pressure alarm panel. Pressure gauge is an indicator to grading and checking the volume of gases in the piping that flow out from the gas cylinders.

  • Gas cylinder


Gas cylinders should always be located outside of working places which is usually located in the gas store room at the lower ground floor. This is achieved by a central gas distribution system consisting of pressure control panels, pipelines and tapping points at the various points of use.

  • Lab gas tap


Lab gas tap is a ball valve supply gas to the end user from the gas storeroom to the end user. Located at laboratory. Colour indicates the type of gases.

  • Gas piping


A plumbing system that includes gas pipes and other gas plumbing components that connect as style fixtures or any other appliances with the gas line is called gas supply system. The function of gas piping is to carriage and delivery of gas, to the gas consuming fixtures or appliances.


  1. The piping system must be designed so that the gas meter provided by gas supplier can be properly located for or within the building of the owner or each customer
  2. Gas pipes should be located such that the locations of isolation valves are easily accessible to the users to facilitate line isolation during emergency. Each floor or section of a building should be provided with an isolation point, in case of fire or leakage at any of the sections.
  3. Gas pipes should as far as practicable, be run outside the building
  4. Gas pipes should preferably enter the building aboveground and remain aboveground and in ventilated location
  5. Gas pipes should be properly painted and labelled for identification purposes. The colour for gas pipes should be yellow
  6. The pipe route selection should avoid any positions where the pipe could be liable to damage either during the building construction or when the property is finally occupied.
  7. The fire resistance of the building must not be impaired
  8. The route should as far as possible avoid the need to cut into load bearing walls or joist.
  9. Pipes may be concealed but provision should be made for access. Exposed gas pipes would facilitate leak detection and maintenance.
  10. Pipe riser ducts must have 2-hour fire rated doors and have one side as an external wall with fixed louvers or ventilated pre-cast block venting naturally to atmosphere.
  11. There should be a space of at least 50mm between a gas pipe and any other services. Where electrical services are being use in the same duct, the gas riser should be separated from the electrical services by a gas tight partition.
  12. Pipes passing through a cavity must take the shortest route and be sleeved.
  13. Pipes are normally run above ceiling, dropping down to appliances on the floor below it when no other route is available.
  14. Pipes must not be laid under or through foundations.
  15. Pipes should never run diagonally across walls or floor. They should normally follow the line of the walls and be kept close to them.
  16. The piping system must not be exposed to the excessive external stress, vibration or corrosion.
  17. The piping system must be installed at a location where maintenance and checking work can be done easily.
  18. To prevent the distribution of gas leakage throughout the building, piping inside any building must not be installed at the following locations:
  • Lift shaft
  • Flues, chimneys and gas vents
  • Clothes chute
  • Enclosed staircase
  • Air handling room
  • Unventilated void space
  • Under load bearing foundations and walls
  • In rooms provided with high voltage power facilities
  1. All piping outlets should be installed to provide sufficient clearance from ceilings, walls and floors to use permit use of a pipe wrench of a suitable size without straining or bending the pipe. The outlet fitting, or piping should not be placed behind doors.


  1. Each outlet, including pipe terminating with a valve, should be securely closed gas-tight with an approved threaded plug or threaded cap immediately after installation and should be left closed until an appliance is connected.


  • Gas supply system are as below:
  1. Natural gas system

Gas flowing from higher to lower pressure is the fundamental principle of the natural gas delivery system.  The amount of pressure in a pipeline is measured in pounds per square inch. From the well, the natural gas goes into “gathering” lines, which are like branches on a tree, getting larger as they get closer to the central collection point.


First, PGU which stand for Peninsular Gas Utilisation and known as natural gas transmission pipeline will send the natural gas to city gate and later to odorize station. Then, natural gas has transmitted to district station through Fender Line (262 psig). After that the gas are transmit are divide and transmit to regulating station and area station through distribution line (60 psig). Regulating station will send the gas to shopping complexes or multiple end-users through internal piping (4.3 psig) and area station will send the gas to residential through internal piping (0.43 psig).


2. LPG supply system



First, LPG Cylinder Manifold or bulk tank (70psi-100 psi) supply gas through internal piping to first stage regulator. 5 psi of gas is distributed to commercial and 5psi is distributed to second stage regulator before supply to residential. 0.5 psi of gas are supply to residential.






Introduction to power generation

Power generation has become the heart of all those that gave us convenience in our daily living. On the other hand, it also ignited the dramatic increase in the human’s need for energy which started way back during the so-called industrial revolution. Generation is a large amount of electricity production process for general use. Typically, the energy produced at 10-20kV voltage to reduce the cost of insulation while generating electricity is an instrument used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The fundamentals of energy conversion are energy that cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.

Take for example:

  • Light energy – Heat energy
  • Potential energy – Mechanical energy
  • Mechanical energy – Electrical energy

The electric current generated at the power station is the alternating current when a wire or an electrical energy conductive material cuts off a magnetic power line, the electrical current will produce. This principle is used in the operation of electric power sponsorship at power station. Electric current generated in this way is called induction currents

Methods of distribution

Where Do Our Electrical Energy and Power Are Coming From?

An electric power distribution system is the final stage in the delivery of electric power. It carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. The distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2kV and 35kV with the use of transformers.


Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage to distribution transformers located near the customer’s premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage of household appliances and typically feed several customers through secondary distribution lines at this voltage. For the commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or the sub-transmission level. A ground connection to local earth is normally provided for the customer’s system as well as for the equipment owned by the utility.


Principles of Electricity

Electrons – negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of the atom.

Protons – Positively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of the atom.

Neutrons – No charge in the atom.

  • These parts are important to know because they determine the charge of the atom.
  • The charge of the atom creates the energy used as electricity.


Consists of 4 Parts

  • Source
  • Produces the force that causes electrons to move.
  • Think of a water source that pushes water through a pipe. Same principle.
  • Electrons (-) are attracted by positive charges, and repelled by negative charges. (Opposite charges attract each other.)


  • Conductors
  • Provide an easy path for electrons to move throughout the circuit.
  • Copper is the most commonly used conductor in electronics and residential wiring.
  • Other conductors include other metals, and water.


  • Load
  • Part of the circuit that changes the energy of the moving electrons into another form of useful energy.
  • Think of a light bulb as a load.
  • As electrons move though the filament of the lamp, the energy of electrons in motion is changed into heat and light energy.


  • Control Device
  • Opens or closes the circuit for electrons to flow.
  • A light switch is a great example. The lights are off, electrons can’t flow through to complete the circuit because the switch is open. When the switch is closed, the electrons can flow, and the circuit is closed.
  • Switches can be classified as NO (normally open) or NC (Normally closed)





  • The force that moves electrons is call VOLTAGE.
  • The unit to measure voltage is known as volts.
  • The common voltage a residential circuit is 120 volts.
  • When calculating formulas, voltage is labelled as “V”.



  • Current – Movement of electrons.
  • Current is measured in Amperes or amps.
  • A typical residential circuit measures 15 Amps.
  • The specifications for a common residential circuit are 120V/15A
  • When calculating formulas, current is labelled as “I”.



  • The opposing force in electrical current.
  • When electrons flow through a conductor, they are opposed by an insulator. The insulator provides resistance.
  • Coating on a wire is the insulator.
  • Unit of resistance is the OHM.

Scientists usually draw electric circuits using symbols:



Type of circuit

Series Circuit

  • A circuit in which the same current flows through all components of the circuit.
  • The current only has one path to take.
  • If the lights are constructed in a series circuit (as many are), if just one bulb is missing or burnt out, the current cannot flow and the lights won’t turn on.
  • Series circuits can be very frustrating because if they don’t work, you have to figure out which piece is responsible.


Parallel Circuit

  • is a circuit in which the components are arranged so that the current must break up (with bits flowing across each parallel branch) before meeting and combining again.
  • Because the current divides, each component is assured a charge.
  • And if one path breaks, the other paths will still work because they aren’t reliant on each other.
  • Example: If you’re looking for new Christmas lights, check that they’re in a parallel circuit arrangement if you want to avoid a lot of hassle.
  • Houses are always built with parallel circuits so that if one light burns out, your entire house won’t lose power.


Combination Circuit

  • This circuit is a combination of the series and parallel circuits.
  • Some sections of the circuit are series and others are parallel.

Ohm’s law (George law):

  • Contain 3 main things that present in all the operational circuits and all of them is having a a relationship. The 3 main things are:
  1. Voltage
  2. Current
  3. Resistance
  • The reaction between this can be seen when the voltage is increase, so thus the current will increase in direct proportion. As example below:

When the voltage increases from 6 volts to 9 volts, the current will automatically increase in direct proportion.

  • However, the reaction of resistance with the current is in opposite direction. It is because when the resistance is increase, the current flow will be decrease in direct proportion as an example below:

when the voltage is remaining at the same volt which is 12 volts, but the resistance is increase from 3Ω to 6Ω. We can see the lighting is getting dim that is means the current flow is decrease in direct proportion.

  • Ohm’s law can be calculating by using this formula:
  • V = IR
  •  I = V/R
  •  R = V/R





Type of phases

Single phase


·         Used in most homes and small businesses

·         Able to supply ample power for most smaller customers, including homes and small, non-industrial businesses

·         Adequate for running motors up to about 5 horsepower; a single phase motor draws significantly more current than the equivalent 3-phase motor, making 3-phase power a more efficient choice for industrial applications

·         Is the distribution of alternating current electric power using a system in which all the voltages of the supply vary in unison.

·          Single-phase distribution is used when loads are mostly lighting and heating, with few large electric motors.

·          A single-phase supply connected to an alternating current electric motor does not produce a revolving magnetic field; single-phase motors need additional circuits for starting, and such motors are uncommon above 10 kW in rating.


Three phase system

·         Common in large businesses, as well as industry and manufacturing around the globe

·         Increasingly popular in power-hungry, high-density data centers

·          Expensive to convert from an existing single phase installation, but 3-phase allows for smaller, less expensive wiring and lower voltages, making it safer and less expensive to run
·         Highly efficient for equipment designed to run on 3-phase

·         Common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

·          It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power.

·         It is also used to power large motors and other heavy loads.


To illustrate the difference between single phase and three phase, imagine a lone paddler in a canoe. He can only move himself forward while his paddle moves through the water. When he lifts the paddle out of the water to prepare for the next stroke, the power supplied to the canoe is zero.

Now picture the same canoe with three paddlers. If their strokes are synchronized so each is separated by 1/3 of a stroke cycle, the canoe receives constant and consistent propulsion across the water. More power is supplied and the canoe moves across the water more smoothly and efficiently.




Domestic waste is the waste produced in course of a domestic activity. In other word, waste that is generated because of the ordinary day-to-day consumption of households. The waste usually produced from accommodation used purely for living purposes and without commercial gain, and which is disposed of via the normal mixed domestic refuse collection. Example of domestic waste are vegetable waste, kitchen waste and household waste. It is also known as municipal solid waste that are commonly called trash, debris, garbage and refuse or rubbish waste which is a type of waste that produce every day in terms of items or element that are discarded by the public. Output of daily waste depends on dietary habits, lifestyle, living standards and degree of urbanization and industrialization.
• Commercial and industrial (C&I) waste is controlled waste arising from the business sector.
• Industrial waste is waste generated by factories and industrial plants.
• Commercial waste is waste arising from the activities of wholesalers, catering establishments, shops and offices.
• Type of commercial waste include:
✓ Municipal waste such as paper, glass, food stuffs, and general waste.
✓ Hazardous waste including materials produced by health clinics, construction and the disposal of components such as fluorescent lighting and some parts of electrical equipment such as fridges and freezers.
• For industrial waste. over 10% is reused and over 33% is recycled (compared with 13% for municipal waste).
• For commercial waste, there are 1.6% reused and 22% recycled.
• All businesses have a duty of care under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to dispose of their waste properly and sustainably.
• This includes having a clear audit trail of how that waste is stored and where it is subsequently sent.
• The emphasis is on preventing waste from being created first and then reusing, repurposing or recycling before settling on the final option of disposing by incineration or putting into landfill.

The important part to manage the commercial and industry waste is 5 stage hierarchy:
1. Prevention: The key for industrial and commercial sectors is to ensure that they prevent the production of waste as much as possible in the first place. This will mean different things for different industries. Another option for businesses is to introduce new technology to reduce waste such as greenhouse gas emissions.
2. Preparing for Re-use: There are plenty of ways for businesses and industries to prepare their unwanted waste for reuse. This could be something as simple as using both sides of copying paper or cleaning and repairing old equipment for reuse either within the company. In bigger industries it could mean using quarry waste for road building rather than sending to landfill as was previously the case.
3. Recycling: Most businesses and industries nowadays separate out their waste to be recycled. This can include paper, card, plastic and metal, all of which can be repurposed in some way. Paper for example can be pulped and made into recycled paper. Glass can be melted down to make new bottles and containers.
4. Other Recovery: Where recycling is not possible, other methods such as heat and energy recovery can be used. This is particularly used in industries such as agriculture where large amounts of farm waste can be used in anaerobic digestion to provide fertilizer and heat or electricity. Many councils nowadays use this as the last stage of waste disposal and more and more cities and towns are beginning to see incineration plants that also provide valuable energy to the surrounding population.
5. Disposal: The final stage of the hierarchy is disposal to landfill or straight incineration. For highly hazardous materials, specialist landfill sites are needed, and disposal services must be specially licensed to use them

Chute system in high rise building

Refuse chutes in high-rise flats it is not practical or hygienic to carry dustbins or bags down to the ground floor for subsequent collection. A method of overcoming this problem is to provide a refuse chute carried vertically through the building, with an inlet hopper on each floor. The hoppers must be designed to close the chute when they are opened to receive refuse, or otherwise people on the lower floors might be covered with refuse from above when they put their own refuse into the hopper. This type of hopper also prevents dust, smoke and smells from passing through to the floors.
There may be more than one chute in a building and these discharge into a refuse container, or an incinerator, inside specially constructed chambers. Refuse chutes should be sited on well-ventilated landings, balconies or adjacent to the kitchens and storage spaces. It should not be sited in a kitchen. For sound insulation, any wall separating a refuse chute away from a habitable room Washing down facilities may be provided for the chute by means of a dry riser with jet heads fitted inside the chute at each floor level. Some authorities, “However, hold that bacteria breed more readily in the presence of water and therefore washing down of chutes should be avoided. Users should be advised to wrap the refuse to prevent soiling of the chute. A chute can be arranged to discharge into two bins” by bifurcating the end with a cut-off damper, operated by a caretaker when one is filled. A special machine may also be used, which automatically compresses the refuse into the bags. Ventilation The chute should be ventilated by means of pipe. The ventilator should be of non- combustible material.
Refuse chutes should be of non-combustible and acid-resistant materials. Glazed stoneware, spun concrete or asbestos cement pipes may be used. Hoppers should also be made of non-combustible materials not subject to corrosion or abrasion. Hoppers are manufactured from cast iron, wrought and cast aluminum and steel. Steel hoppers are galvanized, and cast-iron hoppers painted.


1) Garbage Disposal Installation

Having a home garbage disposal reduces landfill waste by pulverizing food waste and washing it down the drain. The food waste does not become liquid, but it is altered enough not to ruin sewer pipes. A garbage disposal is a step in the right direction, but it solves less than half of the problem. Plenty of waste gets thrown away even with a disposal. Not only that, but the material that can be put down a garbage disposal would be better used in a compost pile.

2) Composting


Taking all your organic food scraps, including coffee grounds and egg shells (excluding meat, bones, skin and lard) and throwing it in layers on a compost pile eventually breaks it down and becomes nutrient-rich fertilizer. You must keep the amounts in proportion and add grass clippings and other yard debris as well, but when done right you are helping to complete the cycle of life. This is one of the best ways to dispose of (food) waste.

3) Recycling


Instead of simply throwing everything away in trash, get in the habit of recycling what can be reused or remade. Metal, paper products, certain plastics, motor oil, electronics, appliances, mattresses, wood, rubber, glass and other things can all be recycled. In some cases, you must pay to have it hauled away. Other things people will gladly remove from your recycling pile on the street. If everything that could be recycled was recycled across the board, the aggregate trash amount would be drastically reduced very year.

4) Incineration


While this method is mainly used at the industrial level, residential incinerators are available to dispose of waste. There is the danger of releasing toxins from certain materials, though, so be sure you know the potential hazards. Rather than throwing everything away to go to the landfill, take the time to consider other waste disposal methods. In doing so, you’ll cut down on the amount of trash you make, and with composting you may end up with something usable because of it.

5) Landfills


Throwing daily waste/garbage in the landfills is the most popularly used method of waste disposal used today. This process of waste disposal focuses attention on burying the waste in the land. Landfills are commonly found in developing countries. There is a process used that eliminates the odors and dangers of waste before it is placed into the ground. While it is true this is the most popular form of waste disposal, it is certainly far from the only procedure and one that may also bring with it an assortment of space. This method is becoming less these days although, thanks to the lack of space available and the strong presence of methane and other landfill gases, both of which can cause numerous contamination problems. Landfills give rise to air and water pollution which severely affects the environment and can prove fatal to the lives of humans and animals. Many areas are reconsidering the use of landfills.


BS 1

Our case building, G11,Kolej Rahman Putra




  • A pipe which conveys soil water either alone or together with waste water or rainwater or both
  • Soil water is used water contaminated with solid waste or trade effluent
  • Soil fitment is those which are used to remove soil water and human excrete.
  • A soil pipe is a PVC or cast iron pipe used in plumbing installations to remove soiled contaminated water from toilets.
  • Generally, the diameter of soil pipe is larger and are designed specifically to remove solid waste from toilets
  • Soil pipe substantially larger than a regular waste water pipe. Average inside diameter around 10cm.



  • A pipe which convey waste water alone or with rainwater. (no soil water and solid waste)
  • Waste water is used water not contaminated by soil water and trade affluent.
  • Waste water fitments is those which are used to remove waste water from washing and preparation of food.
  • Modern waste pipes are fitted with 2 screw caps. Both type of cap should be unscrewed carefully, exerting only minimum amount of pressureBS4DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOIL PIPE AND WASTE PIPE
    Designed to only have liquids from kitchen, basins, drink fountains and tundishes. PLACE TO INSTALL Used for toilets, urinals, bidets and sluice sinks
    Waste Vents TYPE OF VENT Soil Vents

     Types of sanitary system

    There are a few types of sanitary system that used in a house or building for collecting or conveying a waste water. This sanitary system will collect all wasting water straight to the public sewer or domestic septic tank. As below, it is the types of sanitary system:

    a)one pipe systemBS5

    As image above, one pipe system is a system that collect all soil and waste water into one common pipes. All the branch ventilating pipes will connect to the one main ventilating pipe. This one pipe system is usually used by multi storey building. It is because, this pipe will replace the two-pipe system.



    b)two pipe systemBS6


  • Two pipe systems are a system that having a waste stank that received the discharge of fitments and conveyed to the ground level. This pipe is having to delivered it above of the water seal in a trapped gully that is connected to the drainage system. Meanwhile, for the soil stack, it will have received the discharge of soil appliances and will directly brought it to the underground drainage system. This system is can be seen in the image above.c)single stack systemBS7.pngThe single stack system is a very economical system in sanitary system. It is because it can be reducing the cost of soil and waste systems. This type also does not need a branch vent pipes.


    d)Modified single stack systemBS8

  •  Modified single stack system is a close grouping of the sanitary appliances. It is mean that the installation of the branch waste and soil pipes will not be need by the individual branch of ventilating pipes.e)The fully ventilated one pipe systemBS9
  • This type of sanitary system is a many sanitary appliance in ranges. It is because all the trap will have an anti-siphon or the vent pipe each. At this point, the vent stack will be connected to the discharge stack near to the bend to remove compressed air.


Method of Installation

As mention above, sanitary system is divided into three types which is One Pipe System, Two Pipe System and Single Stack System. Different types of system have their own method of installation. Based on our case building which is Block G11 at Kolej Rahman Putra UTM are using One Pipe System. Basically, One Pipe System are preferred for this kind of building where it is suitable to group all the soil and waste appliances and take all types of waters to a common sewer then to the place where water treatment or disposal located.


Since it is called One Pipe System, use only one pipe in collecting and draining discharge and usually all sanitary fittings are connected to one pipe only. So that means, all sanitary fitting being installed near to a main pipe that will easier to being connected to the branching pipe.

In this system, a separate vent pipe is provided and the traps of all water closets and basins are completely ventilated. The single stack vent pipes release compressed air that may have trapped at the base of waste and disposal water single stack pipe. The vent branching pipe connects the single stack vent pipe to the sanitary fitting.

Since this system is provided in multi-storeyed building, the lavatory blocks of various floors are so placed one over other. So that the waste water discharged from the different units can be carried through short branch drains to common soil and waste pipe.




Domestic water supply also known as drinking water supply not only consist of drinking water but also include individual and domestic for instant and bubbling and cleaning.

It is to ensure domestic water safe to consumer, domestic water has to be treated before being supply.




Process of water treatment is

  1. Screening– removes objects such as rags, paper, plastics, and metals to prevent damage and clogging of downstream equipment, piping, and appurtenances. Some modern wastewater treatment plants use both coarse screens and fine screens.
  2. Coagulation– process carry out when a coagulant is added to water to destabilize suspensions
  3. Flocculation– After coagulation, the water flows into flocculation basins, where the flow of water is slowed and the floc has time to grow bigger.
  4. Sedimentation– the water flows into sedimentation basins, where the heavy floc particles sink to the bottom and are removed.
  5. Filtration– now the water travels through large filters made of sand, gravel, and anthracite. Filtration removes any remaining microscopic particles and microorganisms.
  6. Disinfection– the water is disinfected to protect it against bacteria. Chlorine is added to ensure that the treated water is free from pathogenic organism. Fluoride is also added support good dental health.
  7. Distribution– The clean water is then pumped into pipes.



Thanks God for giving us this opportunity to build this website  and record our story together and know each other well.


Group leader  

Eunice Tang Siew Wen from Sibu, Sarawak 


 Group Member

Shumiithra Tang A/P Visvanathan from Pontian, Johor


Siti Nur Aliyah Nordin from Taman Daya Johor Bahru


Nor Fazira Binti Nor Din from Pasir Mas Kelantan


Siti Hajar Binti Mohd Jainar from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah


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